Archive for the ‘history’ Category

Monday, January 4th, 2016

E-BOOK: The Origins Of Cartooning

Hans Holbein Dance of Death


When the history of animation is taught in schools, the course generally starts with Emile Cohl and Winsor McCay and moves on from there. But animation is just a subset of a larger subject- cartooning, and the history of cartooning goes back hundreds of years.

The definition of the word “cartoon” originally meant a preliminary sketch for a painting. But with the introduction of printing around 1300, the purpose of cartoons began to change and evolve into what we know it to be today. When trying to trace the origins of cartooning, it is important to define what cartooning is. The basic elements of a cartoon are…

  • LINE DRAWING: The essence of a cartoon is the stylistic refinement of an image into a simplified rendering in line.
  • CARICATURE: Cartoons employ exaggeration, which illuminates truth and crystalizes a specific point of view.
  • SUBJECT MATTER: Usually, the subject matter of cartoons are humor, political or social satire, adventure or fantasy.
  • ECONOMICS: Cartoons are usually mass-produced using an inexpensive, ephemeral medium aimed at an audience of common people.

Some of these elements may exist more or less in specific types of cartooning; but in general, these are the definining elements.

Hans Holbein Dance of Death
The Knight


In earlier times, a line sketch existed primarily as a preliminary design. It wasn’t valued as a work of art in itself. It was simply a by-product from the creation of a bigger work. Because they weren’t seen as important, very few line drawings before 1300 have survived. But with the introduction of printing, all that changed.

In the mid-15th century in Europe, woodblock printing began to emerge. The carving of the blocks didn’t allow for gray scale rendering, and because the wood and paper surfaces were uneven, solid areas of black did not print cleanly. The woodblock engravers developed a system of line hatching to both simplify and stylize images, and to indicate gray tones. As time went by, the hatching began to wrap around the volumes of the subjects, defining mass. By the beginning of the 14th century, inexpensive woodblock books were being produced, aimed at an audience of common people, both literate and semi-literate.

Around this time, Albrecht Dürer began producing elaborate woodblock prints depicting the Apocalypse, famous Saints and other religious themes. These prints were mass-produced and sold as souvenirs to pilgrims at religious shrines. Printed on cheap paper, these were among the first “broadsheets”, the publication format that spawned both newspapers and comics. Dürer’s prints were so popular, they were widely duplicated and published without his permission. He began putting a “trade mark” consisting of his initials on his own prints to identify them, but crafty plagiarists just duplicated his mark along with the image. Finally, Dürer petitioned the court in Nuremberg and in Venice and succeeded in getting an injunction against the copiers. This was the birth of our modern day copyright law.

Hans Holbein Dance of Death
The Pope


There are many questions about the origin of Hans Holbein’s “Dance of Death”. Experts estimate that they were produced in Basel, Switzerland sometime between 1522 and 1526. They were uncommissioned, so Holbein was free to express his personal point of view about the subject matter. The engraving was done by Hans Lüzelburger Formschneider in Basel, under the supervision of Holbein. The political, religious and social criticism embedded in these woodcuts probably prevented their publication for over a decade.

Hans Holbein Dance of Death
The Friar

Holbein evidently was highly critical of Church officials, from the Pope all the way down to the local monk and nun. The Pope is depicted with the Emperor kissing his feet, while devils hover around him. The Friar is dragged away by death, clutching his donation box, and the Nun is more interested in a handsome troubadour than she is with her prayers.

Hans Holbein Dance of Death
The Nun

Hans Holbein Dance of Death
The King

Political figures don’t escape Holbein’s critical eye either. The King is a caricature of Francis the First of France. The Judge is about to pass judgement on a poor man in favor of a rich man, and the Lawyer receives cash bribes on the street. A devil perches on the shoulder of the Senator who has turned his back on the poor. The Knight (higher up on this page) is foiled by his own vanity only to be impaled on his own lance, and the Soldier is in a fight for his own life with Death, but doesn’t stand a chance even with the best armor.

Hans Holbein Dance of Death
The Lawyer

Hans Holbein Dance of Death
The Gambler

Moral infractions are criticized harshly. Death and the Devil have a tug of war over the Gambler as another card player deftly scoops the money off the table, a lone woman is rescued from the Robber by Death’s interception, and the Drunkard is served by Death as his companions cavort with women and throw up all over the ground.

Hans Holbein Dance of Death
The Drunkard

Hans Holbein Dance of Death
The Old Woman

Most telling is the way Holbein depicts common people. The Old Woman is welcomed by Death as another spirit plays music to lead her on her journey, Death aids the Farmer at his plow., and Death gently leads the Old Man into an open grave as he plays music on a dulcimer for him. It’s clear on which side Holbein’s allegiances lay.

Hans Holbein Dance of Death
The Farmer

Hans Holbein Dance of Death
The Old Man


Now that you know a little bit about these woodcuts, let’s apply it to the four basic elements of cartooning…

  • LINE DRAWING: The medium of woodblock printing prompted the development of stylized representation of image and mass in line.
  • CARICATURE: Holbein expresses his pointed opinions about religious, political and social issues by exaggerating and criticizing them through his drawings. He even creates a caricatured likeness of King Francis the First.
  • SUBJECT MATTER: Holbein’s black humor cuts like a knife, satirizing and lampooning people familiar to his readers. The fantastic element is represented with Death personified as a skeleton and dramatic adventure is included with knights impaled by their lances and soldiers fighting for their lives with swords.
  • ECONOMICS: Woodcuts of religious themes were cheaply printed and sold as souvenirs to pilgrims to religious shrines, widely distributed and copied, and sold to both literate and semi-literate common people.

For further information on the history of cartooning, see…
PODCAST: A Broader View of the History of Cartooning

When you first started reading this article, I am sure you were wondering what a 15th century set of woodcuts have to do with animation. Well, they provide an excellent example of cartooning at its most basic. By studying Holbein’s technique using the material on the Animation Resources website, you will quickly see how the fundamentals of drawing are beautifully employed in these images.

I’ll leave it to you to take a look at these webpages and analyze the images in this e-book for the principles outlined.

Preston Blair’s “Advanced Animation”
In particular, look at line of action, facial expressions and movement of body masses in the characters in Holbein’s works.

Composition: How To Make Pictures
Apply the four elements of composition (picture area, depth, line and value) to Holbein’s woodcuts, especially the Bible cuts.

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In 1833, a scholar named Frances Douce partnered with the greatest engravers of the day, John and Mary Byfield and George Bonner to produce a definitive facsimile edition of Holbein’s “Dance of Death”. By this point, the original woodblocks had been long since lost to time, and the myriad of later recuts and imitations made it difficult to know which cuts were by Holbein and which were later copies. Douce spent many years examining surviving prints and fragments of woodblock books to compile a complete set, then Byfield and Bonner undertook making precise duplicates of the original wood blocks without the inevitable damage the original prints had suffered.

Hans Holbein Dance of Death
Leviticus X: Nadab and Abihu Overcome by Fire

Hans Holbein Dance of Death
First Chronicles X: The Overthrow and Death of Saul

Hans Holbein Dance of Death
Daniel III: Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego Cast Into The Fire

In 1858, Henry J. Bohn combined into a single volume Douce’s book and a reprint of Holbein’s Bible cuts, recreated by Byfield and Bonner in 1830. These careful copies after Holbein have pretty much replaced the surviving original woodcuts because of the poor condition of the nearly five hundred year old paper. Animation Resources has digitized these images from an extremely rare first edition of Bohn’s publication, and we are proud to bring them to you as a downloadable high resolution e-book. This PDF e-book is optimized for display on the iPad or printing two up with a cover on 8 1/2 by 11 inch paper.

REFPACK007: Hans Holbein’s Dance of Death
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Adobe PDF File / 161 Pages
249 MB Download

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Thursday, April 30th, 2015

Interview: Bob Givens- Grand Old Man Of Animation

Bob Givens

In November of 2008, Will Finn, Mike Fontanelli, JoJo Baptista, Michael Woodside and I were treated to nearly three hours of fabulous stories from Bob Givens relating to his half century in the animation business. I’ve included the whole interview as two Quicktime movies…

Bob Givens

You’ll notice that the kinds of stories that Bob relates here are quite different from what you might have read. When I first met Bob, I asked him if he had read any of the books written on the subject of animation history. He was blunt. “A lot of it is bologna. Those books are written by people who weren’t there… people who have never set foot in an animation studio.” This is a sentiment that I’ve heard expressed by a lot of the "old timers" I’ve had the privilege of being able to speak to. But Bob may be the last one left. We’re all lucky to have this opportunity to virtually sit at the feet of a "golden age" animator and hear about his experiences in his own words.

Bob Givens

Bob began his career as an Assistant Animator at Disney. His raw talent led him to be assigned to assist the Grim Natwick unit on Snow White. Please correct me in the comments if I’m wrong, but I believe that Bob is the last surviving member of the Snow White crew.

Private Snafu

During WWII, Bob was a part of the First Motion Picture Unit producing training films for the war effort.

Bob Givens

At Warner Bros, Bob designed the character models for the first true Bugs Bunny cartoon, "A Wild Hare", as well as providing background layouts and story sketches for countless Jones, Freleng, Avery and McKimson cartoons.

Linus the Lionhearted

Givens’ career continued to flourish throughout the television era. He worked on the first TV cartoon, Jay Ward’s Crusader Rabbit, as well as Clampett’s Beany & Cecil, Post Cereal’s Linus the Lionhearted and Hanna Barbera’s The Flintstones. Along with Bernie Gruver, Givens designed the classic "Raid Bug" spots for Cascade, and continued to work steadily into his 80s, retiring in 2001 after laying out Chuck Jones’ Timber Wolf.

Bob Givens


John Wayne & Judy Garland in Lancaster, CA
The Lake Norconian "Orgy"
Mentor Huebner’s Film Concept Work
David Swift at IMDB
History of the First Motion Picture Unit

Many thanks to Bob Givens for sharing his experiences with us, to Mike Fontanelli and Will Finn for taking time out of their busy schedules to speak with Bob, and to Michael Woodside and JoJo Baptista for producing this video.

Will Finn posts his impressions of the interview on his blog, Small Room.

Stephen Worth
Animation Resources

Animated CartoonsAnimated Cartoons

This posting is part of the online Encyclopedia of Cartooning under the subject heading, Animation.

Wednesday, February 11th, 2015

Exhibit: Natwick on Iwerks

Ub Iwerks

Ub Iwerks Self Portrait

One of the principle goals of Animation Resources is to tell the history of animation, not by character or studio, but through the lives of the people who made the cartoons. No single animator’s life and career tell the history of animation better than Grim Natwick’s.

Grim started in the 20’s animating silent Krazy Kat cartoons at the Hearst Studio in New York. He ended up at Fleischer, where he created Betty Boop. He received an offer to move West to join Walt Disney, but friends advised him that Ub Iwerks, who had just left to form his own studio, was the real creative spark behind the Mickey Mouse pictures. So Grim joined Ub instead, and ended up running the studio. A few years later, Grim became excited with the prospect of a feature length cartoon, so he went to Disney, where he ended up animating the title character. He returned to the Fleischers in Florida for a spell, and ended up back in Hollywood working for Walter Lantz on the wartime Woody Woodpecker cartoons. At an age when most of his contemporaries were retiring, Grim jumped into the modern stylization of UPA with both feet, and was instrumental in setting up their New York offices. He worked with Culhane, Ward and Melendez; and in his 80s, animated on Richard Williams’ Theif and the Cobbler. Here is a life that spanned the entire history of animation.

Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks

Walt Disney & Ub Iwerks

I’m very proud to introduce the first bit of information into the biographical database… an interview done with Grim in the at Animafestival 1982 produced by Reg Hartt. Michael Gowling ran a tape of Grim’s comments. In the interview, he talks about his entire career… animating Snow White, experimenting with timing on commercials at UPA, and sharing insight on the various people he worked with over the years. One particularly interesting part of the interview deals with Ub Iwerks, and Grim answers a question that many animation historians have been puzzling over for years… in his own unique way.


Thanks again to Reg Hartt and Craig Davison.

Stephen Worth
Animation Resources

TheoryGrim Natwick

This posting is part of an online exhibit entitled Grim Natwick’s Scrapbook.
Animated CartoonsAnimated Cartoons

This posting is part of the online Encyclopedia of Cartooning under the subject heading, Animation.